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"THE EAGLES" are the Alpine Guides of the San Martino di Castrozza and Primiero (Trentino Region) in Italy
(GUIDE ALPINE AQUILE di San Martino di Castrozza e Primiero)
Himalaya - Nepal Spring 2001 Climbing Expedition
Makalu stands at 8475 m. above sea level and is the 5th. highest mountain on earth
Alpine Guides
Makalu2001- The Expedition
The Climbers
Sponsors - mail
Makalu 2001 helps the poor children of Nepal - read the communication
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Alpine Guides
To get to know the Eagles better, please take a moment to visit the official web site of the Guide Alpine di San Martino di Castrozza e Primiero:
For some history, and a tour of the expertise and the professional nature of Italian Alpine Guides (Guide Alpine Italiane) please visit their official web site:

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The Eagles are the Alpine Guides of San Martino di Castrozza and Primiero, and on the event of the extra-European climbing expedition to Makalu (8475m.) have organized a trek to the Base Camp located at the foot of the fifth highest mountain on Earth to meat the members of the expedition who will be engaged on the main ascent to be made sometime between April and May 2001.
This will be a three week long strenuous walking adventure that will take us across the valleys of East Nepal crossing jungles, rice fields, forests, medieval villages, high altitude passes and inhabited plateau.
With our background and experience from other expeditions, the fascination of these lands, mountains and peoples can only serve to further expand our culture and enrich our understanding.
The trek to the Makalu Base Camp unfolds in one of the most far away and lonely areas of East Nepal. This trek, done totally on foot, will pass through the Arun and Barun valleys starting from the village of Tumlingtar that we will reach by plane from Kathmandu.
Along these valleys the approach to the Makalu Southern Face unfolds, crossing rice fields and low altitude villages mainly inhabited by populations belonging to the Newar, Rai, Chetri and Tamang Tribes.
Reaching an altitude of about 1200-1500m. we enter a rain forest (this is a true jungle inhabited by monkeys, leeches, and enriched by beautiful orchids).
After walking on ridges and crossing passes to an altitude of 2000 m. a descent is made to the altitude of 700m. in order to cross the Arun river, climibing again to an altitude of 2000m. to reach Tashigaon, the last village inhabited by the Kumbo population, a Bothiya people of Tibetan origin.
Than we climb again once more to enter the rain forest in order to reach a ridge of hills with an altitude of 4200 m. where we will cross the pas Shipton La that allows entrance to the remote Barun valley where the summer pastures are found.
Climbing up along the Barun Valley vegetation becomes more and more scarce and the rhododendron trees leave room to the conifers. Above 4000m. the valley widens and we start seeing the high peaks: Peak VI (6739 m.), Chamlang (7290 m.), Makalu (8475 m.), Lotse (8501 m.) and Everest (98848 m.).
From the two Base Camps, the view of these mountains is astonishing.
With respect other treks in the Himalayas, for example those in the Kumbu Valley (to Mount Everest) and the one circling Mount Annapurna, this route unfolds in an area not much travelled by tourists, that is considered to be very wild and demands long hours of walking though without presenting great difficulties. This requires that a trekker be in good shape with a good capacity for overcoming adverse and uncomfortable conditions.
Two treks will leave Italy; one on the 12th and one on the 16th. April 2001
Day by day program
1st/2nd day
Milan - Kathmandu
In the morning we will take off for the Nepali Capital: Arrival and transfer to the hotel.
3rd day
After breakfast, transfer to the airport and flight to Tumlingtar. On arrival, after having met the guide and porters, we start our trek and in less than 3 ours we will reach Khandbari. First night in tents.
4th day
Bhote Bas
Leaving the village behind we walk across pastures and along a ridge to reach Mane and Panguma. This day walk unfolds with many lengthy up and downs in order to get to Bhote bas where we pitch the night camp.
5th day
Our path enters the forest but doesn't leave the main ridge. We pass the villages of Chichira and Kuwapani where we will see many prayer walls made of stones inscribed with prayers by the Buddhist population. At the and of the day’s walk we will be able to see the summit of Makalu at 8475m. Here we will spend the night.
6th day
Tashi Gaon
The foot path leaves the ridge and climbs down a face to reach a suspended bridge over the Arun river. The altitude we lost climbing down will be soon regained climbing up till we reach the Sedua village. From there we keep on climbing till we get to Tashi Gaon where we pitch the night camp.
7th day

8th day
Leaving the forest behind, the path climbs up to reach the pastures belonging to the village of Uteshe and goes to the top of the ridge that is on top of the village. In the afternoon we get to the night camp in Kauma.
Just outside the village, after having climbed the ridge once more we reach a point where the view is superb: from here we can easily distinguish the Makalu and all the other 6000 thousand that form an amphitheatre. We keep on climbing up to reach the Keke Pass and the rest of the day is spent climbing down till Mumbuk where the night camp is pitched.
10th day
Nehe Kharka
Almost the entire day is spent climbing downhill on the shadow of the Mountains: Pic VI and Pic VII on the early afternoon we reach the night camp.
11th day
Base Camp
Short and spectacular walk; we are almost at the feet of Makalu, standing imposingly at 8475m.
12th day
Advanced Base Camp
Between the two Base Caps lay 3 hours of pleasant uphill walking. Needless to say that the view is superb and imposing.
3th day
Day of rest ate the Base Camp
14th - 19th day
Way back along the same route.
20th day

In the morning flight back to Katmandu. Transfer to the hotel and free afternoon.
21st - 22nd day
Morning free and in the afternoon transfer to the airport and flight back to Italy

Suggested Personal Equipment for the Trek
You will find here below suggested equipment to take on the trip which can be integrated according to personal need.
The weight of personal equipment (apart from hand luggage) must not exceed 20kg. Per person.
The cost for exceeding the weight of this baggage requirement must be paid by the trekker.
During the trek the total weight that each person can give to his porter must not exceed 15kg. per person.

To get any information regarding the Trek please contact:
The Alpine Guide Rocco Romagna
Responsible of the TREKKING MAKALU 2001 Expedition
Via Meatoli, 17
38050 Imer (TN) Italy
+39 0439 678185 +39 339 642425
email guidaalpinarocco@libero.it

Equipment List
Big sack possibly with a locker
Trekking Boots
Jogging shoes
Trekking trousers
Waterproof over trouser
Padded anorak
Cotton long and short trousers
Woolen shirts and cotton T shirts
Small Umbrella and waterproof cloak
Woolen and cotton socks
Light gaiters
Woolen bonnet (cap or hood)and light cotton cap
Sun glasses (better with side protections)
Swim suit
Underwear, handkerchief, scarf, towel and washing things
Sun lotion and protective lip stick
Torch and batteries
Water bottle
Personal cup and spoon, knife and fork
Skiing and walking sticks
Tablets to make water drinkable
Passport and other personal documents
Personal medicines
We suggest you to carry integrative food to energize the body and against dehydration.

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Makalu 2001
The expedition to the fifth highest mountain on Earth
To commemorate the 25th. Anniversary of the successful expedition to the Dhaulagiri Mountain long by "The Eagles", Alpine Guides of San Martino di Castrozza e Primiero, that took place on 1976, the younger generation of Eagles have decided to organize a new extra European climbing expedition. In the spring of the 2001 nine climbers, seven of whom are Alpine Guides from the Dolomite Valley of Primiero, will leave Italy to climb the Makalu. The fifth highest mountain on Earth, one of the hardest and most desired "eight thousands" due to its’ isolated position in the Himalayan range and the difficulty of the climbing routes the "young Eagles", heirs to an ancient tradition of great mountain guides and great climbers of the Dolomites, will attempt this important expedition. Their strength and confidence in their expertise comes from a vast amount of experience gained on the marvelous rock faces of the mountains of their home valley and in other expeditions made outside of Europe.
Their goal is Makalu which stands at 8475 m. above sea level, the Himalayan Giant rising high on the border between Nepal and Tibet.
Makalu is one of the five highest mountains on the planet and as it is so far away from any frequented areas, earlier cartographers, at the beginning, simply named it withRoman number: XIII. Then the topographer Rinzin Namgyal a member of the "Survey of India" team, renamed it Khamba Lung An, probably taking its name from the Tibetan District Khamba. The next topographic exploration gave the mountain the name we know today, Makalu, the meaning of which is still uncertain.
The more accepted hypothesis is that the word comes from a distortion of the Sanskrit Mahakala (the personification of death and rebirth or "the god of time"), one of the destructive aspects of Shiva, time being seen the destroyer of all things.
Kala in Sanskrit means black or Time, in fact, as black absorbs all colors so time embraces and contains on itself the entire reality.
When Shiva, the great god which is part of the Hindu triad, is represented in his destructive aspect, he is black and terrible; "The Great Black" (in Tibetan Nagpo Chempo and in Sanskrit Mahakala). So Mount Makalu, whose summit is made up of dark rocks, is the kingdom of Mahakala who, for Tibetan Buddhism, represents the protection power of all Buddha.
Another popular hypothesis has the name stemming from Kama- Lung (Tse) which means "The mountain in the valley of the stream Kama."
Foto : The Makalu South face

To the first explorers of the region of Khumbu (Mallory cites it in the guide published in 1921) the Makalu appeared as an imposing and isolated pyramid made of four sharp ridges. The great mountain stands 23 km. away from Mount Everest along the main line of peaks of the greatest chain of mountains on our planet, the Himalayan Range. The Makalu main ridges point towards the North-East (Chomo Lonzo, 7815m.), to the South-East ( with a ramification to the West toward the Twins, 6490 m.) and to the North-West (Makalu pass, 7410 m.). The Makalu Pass or Makalu La separates the mountain from the main peak of the Kangchungtse and leads to the Chomp Lonzo, a second beautiful peak crossing the Sakyetang Pass. To the West of the main peak stand the marvelous lesser peaks called Makalu Shar and Makalu South-East.
Makalu is still among the most thought of climbs among the Himalayans, not only for the length of the trek necessary to reach its base, but also for difficult routes of ascent which demand a great deal of technical expertise from climbers at a very high altitude.
It should be remembered that only five of the sixteen expeditions attempting the climb have succeeded.
The first ascent was made in 1955 by a French expedition lead by Jean Franco along the North-West face. The summit of the fifth highest mountain on Earth was reached on 15th.May by Jean Cozy and Lionel Terry.
Foto: North-West Face: The route of ascent

The expedition will leave Italy on 1st. April and following a trek of about twelve days, the team members will reach Base Camp on the mountains Western face putting them in a position to follow the French Route. During the first phase of acclimatization, the climbers will pitch an Advance Base Camp at an altitude of about 5500 m. on the confluence of the Barun and Chago Glacier. Camp 1 will be on the upper rim of the Chargo Glacier, just ahead of the rocky cliff that leads to the North-East ridge. Camp 2 will be pitched in the large hollow on the ridge called Makalu la (Makalu Pass at 7400m.). From this point the route is almost horizontal up to an altitude of 7650 m., then on up through steep snow to Camp 3 at 7900m which is protected by a rocky rib. From here the route bends completely to reach the middle of the North Face, passing by an area of seracs and obliques to the left where it meets a couloir 50° steep and 200m.long leading to the Summit Ridge. At its base this edge is quite easy but becomes very sharp and exposed on its central part.
Day by day phases of the ascent can be followed by opening the news page.

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Expedition leader
Born 15/08/1964
Alpine guide since 1990, he is the instructor of helicopter rescue and vice chief of the Alpine Rescue Station of Primiero. He is certainly one of the great men in the field of climbing in the valley. He has traced 25 climbing routes and has made the same number of first repetitions. He has climbed the first winter routes of the peak Supermatita on the Sass Maor, the Messner route on the Cima della Madonna, the Via delle Guide on the Sass d'Ortiga, the Route Reali on the Cimon della Pala, the Pilastro dei Finanzieri on the Lastei Peak and the Route of Finanzieri on the Peak Immink. On Sassolungo the Pilastro Paolina and on the Marmolada the route Cattedrale. In the span of his very wide climbing activity we can count the climbs of the great North faces on: the Eiger, the Matterhorn, the Ortles and on the Eguille Verte. On Mount Blanc he climbed the Freney Central Pylon, the Red Pylon of Brouillard and the Brenva Buttress.
He has been involved in several extra European expeditions: in 1989 he climbed the Cerro Pissis in the Argentinean Andes 6840m.; in 1998 during the expedition to Kun Lun in China he first climbed two peaks 6500 m. high; in 1999 on the second expedition to Kun Lun he conquered three new mountain peaks ranging between 5000and 6000m.
He works intensively as a mountain guide on the entire Alpine Range.

Vice expedition leader
Born 13/10/1953
Alpine guide since 1985, he has climbed the major Dolomite peaks both in summer and in winter. In the eighties he opened many new routes starting the exploration of the valley’s low altitude cliffs starting sportive climbing in this area.
We must remember the routes opened together with Manolo in 1981: the Via Muro di Spugna on the North Face of the Cima della Madonna; the Via Agorafobia on the West face of the Cima val di Roda; Via Trifoglio Appassito on the West face of Cima Canali. In the following years together with Renzo Corona traced the routes Olio & Stalio on the Cima Wilma, the Bocieta on the avant-corps of the Pala di San Martino, El Tura on the West Face of Rosetta, the Camillo de Paoli (with Renzo & Friends) on the North Face of the Pala di San Martino.
He is member of the commission that examines national Alpine Guides hopefuls and he has done a lot of ski-touring on the great French, Swiss and Austrian itinerary. He has been the group leader of the Eagles of San Martino.
He has a very artistic and creative temperament which he has shown by illustrating several technical publications on climbing and rescuing techniques.
He practises his profession as a technician in the Consorzio Veneto Rocciatori and as an Alpine Guide.
Email narciguida@libero.it

Born 22/02/1962
He and his wife run the mountain hut, Rifugio Pedrotti, on the Pale Plateau, and he has been a ski master since 1983 and ski instructor and helicopter rescue instructor for the Alpine Guides since 1984.
He is an expert on the Pale di San Martino the Dolomite Group that stands on top of the village and in these mountains he has opened many new routes. In particular: he has opened together with Manolo two routes on the Cima Wilma and the route "strani incontri" on the Cima Canali. On the Cima della Madonna he opened the route Franz Lott, together with his wife, and the route Via delle Guide with Renzo Corona. On the Cima di Ball he opened the route "ape maia" and many other routes.
He has climbed the majority of the classical routes on the Dolomites dedicating a lot of time to ice climbing and ski touring as instructor of the Alpine Guides. For many years he has been the national champion on the Alpine Guide Championship and 2nd and 3rd at the World Championship of the Mountain Guides in Val D'Isere and Stubaital.
He is a passionate climber, and, even if he doesn't like extreme climbing, he knows most of the European cliffs.
Founder and president of the Ski Club San Martino, he is a Ski Federation trainer, and Vice President of the Guide of San Martino. He has climbed both in the Himalayan range and in the Andes.

Born 12/10/1963
He and his wife Mara run the mountain hut, Rifugio Treviso in Val Canali and he has been a Mountain Guide since 1992.
He has done a lot of climbing in the Dolomites and has climbed many difficult routes in the Western Alps, particularly on Mont Blanc.
In South America he has climbed several peaks among which are Aconcagua and Cerro Pissis. He has also been part of two expeditions in Nepal. He has done extensive winter climbing in the Dolomites and during his career opened many new routes among which should be mentioned the South of the Sass d'Ortiga.

Born 9/01/1963
He has been an Alpine Guide since 1993.
As a solo climber he has climbed the Route Solleder, Supermatita, Biasin e Castiglioni on the Sass Maor; the routes Buhl, Heidi and Strani Incontri on Cima Canali, an the Direct ascent Fiamme Gialle and the Supermatita on Sass Maor.
In his vast climbing career we must underline some difficult North Faces such as the Eiger. In the Dolomites the great routes on the Civetta Group and the great classical routes. Been an expert rescuer in recent years he has carried out the most difficult rescues in the Pale di San Martino Group.

Born 29/09/1965
He runs the mountain hut Rifugio al Velo della Madonna together with his wife Beatrice, and has been a mountain guide since 1993.
He has climbed the most difficult routes in the Dolomites and has been part of the team on two expeditions in Nepal.
On the Pale di San Martino group he made some first winter routes when he was very young: Via Michelan-Timillero on the Punta della Disperazione and via Luigino Henry on the Pilastro Barbier of the Cimerlo.
He has been a pioneer in Italian gliding and climbing (hang-glider jumping from the peaks) and he has been member of the Italian national team on this sport achieving good results. He has jumped with his hand-glider from all the Pale di San Martino peaks.

Born 25 /01/1973
Alpine Guide since 1998 he has attended the school to become a Guide in Val d'Aosta where he has worked for four years on the rescue team of the Guardie di Finanza in Courmayeur. He has done extensive climbing on Mont Blanc where he has made the Grand Capucin (route Voyage selon Gulliver), the petit Dru (Route direct ascent Americana) Petit Jorasses (Via Americana), Pilastro Rosso del Brouillard (Via Bonington) He has also climbed waterfalls and goulotte on the Mont Blanc de Tacul, on the Basin of Argentiere and on the Sperone Frendo to the 6th grade on the French scale.
He has done a lot of winter climbing, climbing classical routes particularly on the Mount Rosa and on the Gran Paradiso.
At the moment he is member of the Rescue Team of the Rolle Pass and he climbs in all the Dolomite Groups.

Born 19/11 1949
He is an expert in telecommunications which is his specific job within the Alpine Rescue team. In the seventies he has done many winter routes opening several new ones together other climbers. As a volunteer he has installed telecommunication systems in all Africa climbing the major mountains in that continent. In the last decade he has concentrated his activity on ski touring on the entire Alpine Range.
Email ginfde@tin.it

The expeditions’ doctor
Born 4/01/1965
Anesthetist and trauma expert on the intensive care unit in the Vicenza Hospital, volunteer doctor of CNSAS, member of the Società Italiana di Medicina di Montagna (experts on mountain medicine) he climbs both on rocks and ice and does ski touring. He has climbed some 4000m high peaks on the Western Alps.
He has done some rescue with helicopters in the mountains and is an expert traumatologist and practitioner of emergency medicine and has acquired his specialization in Mountain Medicine at the University of Padua, a specialization recognized by UIAA.
Email rigoz@hotmail.com

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Organizational aspects, nourishment and medical side of Makalu 2001



In the logistics of the expedition we have planned to pitch a comfortable Base Camp at an altitude of 4800m. A very large tent kitchen will be used as a canteen and meeting point for the free moments during our days there.

A dozen smaller tents will be used as dormitory for climbers and the local personnel.
With 3/4 kerosene stoves and the same number of pressure cookers we will be able to perfectly cook both pasta and rice which are the staple food of the expedition.
The radio link and telephone satellite hook-up will enable us to be in permanent and constant contact with the advanced camps, the other members of the team, our families, the press and those who support our expedition.
Electricity will be provided by a small generator to enable us to use the computer and other electrical equipments.
The food used at base Camp is provided by the agency responsible for organizing the expedition and we will be using approximately 500kg. of food.

Part of the food will be sent from Italy and the fresh food will be bought from local markets.
We chose food that is of particularly high caloric content, right for the high altitude in which we are going to operate, and which is on line with the typical Italian cuisine we are used to.

We will pitch four high camps, composed of a couple of tents pitched in safe places.
Every little tent will contain sleeping bags, mats, small stoves, pans and staple food to survive in extreme conditions.
The high camps will be used for a night stop to acclimatize and enable us to climb further.
After every acclimatization phase we will come down to the Base camp for a period of rest and regeneration.

All the food we will use at high altitude will come from Italy.
It is lyophilized or dehydrated food (soups, vegetables and fruit creams, ovomaltina) with special feature for the extreme conditions: this food must be easily eaten and must be quickly cooked on the small gas stove. The caloric requirements of the body prevails on the protein one.

Crackers, cokes and dry bread will build our energetic base for the day while honey and fructose will give us a more immediate energy burst.
At high altitude the Parmesan Cheese is particularly indicated for its taste and salt content.
A major problem is the reintegration of liquids and the body salts lost during permanence at high altitude due to the adverse atmospheric conditions and great physical effort.
Some additives and salt integrators will help us to balance this deficit.
While you climb you eat a little (snacks, cokes, ecc.) but it is extremely important to drink to avoid high altitude sickness, a syndrome that can be the cause of cerebral and lung edema that is extremely dangerous.


Satellite telephone 1
Portable Computer 1
Generator 1
Fuel + Oil 50 liters
Radio transmitters 6
Stoves and pans 6
Cannisters for fuel 50
Hyperbaric Chamber 1
Oxygen for medical use 1
Snow Shovels 3
High Altitude Tents 7
Sleeping Bags for High Altitude Camps 8
Caribiners 35
Jumars 8
Fixed Ropes 200 m.
Dynamic Ropes 9mm.50m 4
Ice and rock pitons 30
Flat and stick batteries Duracell 100
Stock of light bulbs 1,5 volt 50
Bag of tools 1
Little flags to mark the route 30
Thermometer with minimum and maximum 1
* on this list we don’t take into account the equipment necessary to build the Base Camp

Full suit for high altitude 1

Transpiring underwear and intermediate suit made in light and heavy (PILE)
Crampons 1
Ice-ake 1
Cords 4
Sleeping Bag for Base Camp 1
Sleeping mat 1
Plastic Boots 1
Full size gaiters 1
Bivouac bag 1
Gloves 3 pairs
Glove covers made in gore tex 1
Bonnet and balaclava 2
Glacier glasses 2
Mask and glasses to against the wind 1
Altimeter-compass 1
Swiss knife 1
Spoon and forks set 1
Thermos 1
Head light 1
Skiing telescopic sticks 1
Low sling 1
Rucksack 1
Personal medicine and toilette things
Camera and films

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We thank the following companies for the support they have given us in organizing an extreme climbing project on the Hearth mountains.
To contact the expedition team or to become part of the sponsors click below

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With the typical spirit of the mountain people who are sensitive to the needs of whom, like themselves, know in their flesh just how tough mountain life can be, the Alpine Guides of San Martino di Castrozza (Italian Alps) who will attempt the ascent of Makalu Himal (Nepal) have shown a great deal of enthusiasm for the idea of being "porters" of humanitarian aid for the poor children of Katmandu. There, on the outskirts of the town that is known as "the door to the greatest mountains of the world" for all climbers, lives an aged Canadian Jesuit Father who has dedicated his life and his unshakable energy to serving the poorest and most forgotten children.

Everything began fifty years ago when Father Watrin was a young priest sent to the Katmandu diocese. From the moment he began teaching in the newly born Jesuit High School he realized that that this would not be enough and from then many projects began to take shape and many young people joined him. They were then and are now Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, without any difference to the man who formed the great volunteer group called "SOCIAL ACTION VOLUNTEERS".

Their activities involve:

A primary school that provides teaching to seven hundred children who otherwise would not get any education; during the years many of them have managed to carry on their studies, attending University and now have come back to teach to those children who, like them, come from the poorest families in town.

With steady and hard work they managed to work in the only children’s hospital in Katmandu "Kandhi Hospital" and it is now more than twelve years that the poor children can be cured and cared for there. They also take care of the children’s families who can find shelter and food while they live in Katmandu. Recovering children can now play in a room full with toys.

In the hills that surround Katmandu the volunteers have established many dispensaries where a doctor and nurse visit giving treatment and medicine to those who would ordinarily not have the possibility to get medical care. The Father and his volunteers reach these dispensaries with a jeep that the Father proudly calls his "mobile clinic".

A weaving lab has been established in town and artisans volunteer to teach the women how to weave beautiful materials that are sold in a little shop directly run by them.

All these projects count on the generosity, good heart and goodwill of those who can help them. There is no stable financial support that can guarantee that these projects will have the means to survive, but there is always someone who puts a hand in his pocket making it possible for things to go on.

The San Martino climbing expedition will bring from Italy: clothing, shoes, toys, school things, medicines and money; the people of the Alpine valleys have collected 300 kg of goods and the climbers and the trekkers who will follow the expedition will fly to Nepal with everything thanks to Gulf Air who has provided for free shipment of this humanitarian project.

Over the past decades we have seen too many expedition throw themselves in to the conquest of the mighty Nepalese mountains without taking into account that their actions constituted a sort of pacific invasion that undermined the countries’ social and economical status. This small scale Italian humanitarian project will not change the situation of the poor people of Nepal but, rather, will show that one can approach the great mountains also doing something for the people who live at their feet.

The Italian Mountain Guides, the "Eagles of Saint Martin", fly high and on the way to Makalu they will also find time to dedicate to these small children of the mountains.

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